What is a dental implant?
Dental implants are basically materials made of various metals that mimic the tooth root. Dental implants, which have an important place in dental treatments applied today, complete the missing teeth in terms of function and aesthetics.
The placement of the dental implant in the jawbone ensures the preservation of the jawbone tissue. The prostheses placed on it afterwards mimic the teeth, allowing patients to continue their lives comfortably.
Conditions requiring dental implants
Dental implants are generally used to replace missing teeth. When examined in detail, the following are among the areas of use of dental implants:
- The first areas of use of dental implants are patients who have no teeth and cannot use removable dentures due to jawbone resorption. Thanks to implant applications, the jawbone tissue of these patients is preserved and connection points for prosthetic teeth are created. These practices are called all to four.
- Dental implants are also used in the loss of molars. In order to compensate for these teeth in the back of the mouth, dental prostheses that provide a much more comfortable use than removable dentures are preferred.
- In cases of multiple and sequential tooth loss, bridges exceed the length of the body. In this case, implant applications are made to solve the problems that occur.
- In single tooth losses, dental implant treatment is also applied in order not to damage other healthy teeth with crowns.
Types of dental implants
Dental implant, which is one of the most preferred treatments in the field of dental health and diseases in recent years, is basically divided into two. These are implant types in terms of structure and implant types in terms of application. Both types are subdivided into subgroups.
Types of implants in terms of structure
The first factor affecting the success of implant treatments is the correct placement of the implants. In addition to the complete and comfortable fulfillment of chewing functions, this point, which is also important in terms of aesthetics, also causes the implant to diversify.
Titanium dental implants
Titanium, one of the biocompatible metals, has the highest success rate in dental implants. For this reason, today, these screw-shaped structures of implants, which act as tooth roots, are made of titanium.
Titanium dental implants are placed in the jaw bones of patients under local anesthesia in the correct position and fuse with the jaw bone tissue in a short time. Thanks to this feature, titanium implants offer a similar experience and comfort to tooth roots. Since titanium dental implants are produced in sizes compatible with the jaw bones of the patients, they are in complete harmony with the application area.
Ceramic dental implants
Ceramic dental implants are a method applied for patients with metal sensitivity or allergies. On the other hand, they are also preferred aesthetically as they offer the closest appearance to the real tooth appearance. Since ceramic is one of the biocompatible medical materials, it adapts to the body in a short time and does not cause any allergic reaction.
Ceramic implants consist of 3 parts. The first one is the part placed in the jawbone. The middle part, called the abutment, which allows the prosthetic tooth to be attached, is then joined to the lower part. The final parts of ceramic implants are the prosthetic teeth.
One-piece ceramic implants
The other type of implant that provides an aesthetic appearance is one-piece ceramic implants. The biggest factor in the preference for one-piece ceramic implants is that the treatment period is completed in a shorter time compared to other implant types since they are applied as a single piece. In addition, it provides a much better tissue compatibility compared to titanium implants. Due to these properties of ceramic implants, they have been frequently preferred over titanium implants in recent years.
Ceramic implants over titanium
In titanium-on-ceramic veneers, the part that acts as the tooth root consists of titanium, while the part that acts as the tooth consists of ceramic prostheses. In this way, they become compatible with the jawbone and provide a much more aesthetic appearance with ceramic coatings.
The biggest factor in the preference of ceramic implants over titanium is that titanium is long-lasting and ceramic coatings offer the closest aesthetic appearance to the natural tooth appearance. In addition, there is no risk of allergy with ceramic implants over titanium. Finally, they do not cause cold and heat sensitivity in patients due to their lower thermal conductivity.
Application direction implant types
Another basic type of dental implants is implant types with the application aspect. What allows this type to be divided into groups within itself is the difference in the surfaces of the implants that come into contact with the gums and jaw suction.
There is no tooth loss with endodontic implants. It is applied inside the teeth that are already in existence. In this way, the tooth is made stronger and tooth loss is prevented. These implants, usually made of ceramic or metal, are placed in the root canal of the tooth. Endodontic implants, which are produced in the form of cylinders, screws and blades, provide the protection of weakened teeth after root canal treatment.
In the application of transosseous implants, a type of implant placed in the entire jawbone, a hole is drilled into the jawbone. This ensures that the implant is firmly attached to the jawbone. Transosseous implants, which are different from other implants with this feature, are a technique applied especially to patients with insufficient jaw bone tissue. This feature of transossez implants also causes it to be a more difficult application. For this reason, general anesthesia can be applied to patients and the recovery process is longer.
Intramucosal implants, a method applied to patients whose jawbone is not sufficient or who have lost the tooth root, are applied to the gum. The fact that this type of implant, which provides the restoration of aesthetic appearance in tooth loss, is attached only to the gum provides many advantages to patients. These include a faster healing process and a lower risk of infection.
This type of implant is placed between the jawbone and the gum. It is a type of implant applied especially to patients with insufficient jawbone and gingival recession. In addition to being less invasive, subperiosteal implants may cause more tissue damage. It also has less stability and durability compared to other types of implants.
Another type of implant placed inside the jawbone is endostal implants. Endostal implants, which can be cylindrical or screw-shaped, are the most commonly used implant type in tooth loss. These implants, which last much longer when used correctly, also have higher durability and stability than other types of implants.
For the application of the endostal implant, the jawbone must also be suitable for this procedure. If the jawbone tissue is suitable, a hole is drilled into the bone and the implant is placed. It is a procedure performed under local anesthesia.
Dental implant brands
One of the important criteria for dental implant treatments to be successful and for patients to be satisfied with the treatment is the brands of the implants used. Implants with a wide range of products meet all expectations if they are selected correctly.
Implant brands are imported from many countries around the world. Among the most frequently used of these brands are the following.
- Megagen ANYRIDGE Implant (South Korea)
- Megagen OCTA Implant (South Korea)
- Straumann ITI Implant (Switzerland)
- Camlog CAMLOG Implant (Germany)
- ZIMMER Implant (USA)
- NEOSS Implant (Switzerland)
- DENTAURUM Implant (Germany)
- BICON Implant (USA)
- THOMMEN Implant (Switzerland)
- OSSTEM Implant (South Korea)
- BIOHORIZONS Implant (USA)
- Biotect KONTACT Implant (France)
- Biotech WEEGO Implant (France)
- Dentsply ASTRA Implant (Switzerland)
- Dentsply XIVE Implant (Germany)
- Dentsply ANKYLOS Implant (Germany)
- Strauman MEDENTIKA Implant (Germany)
- Nobel PARALLEL Implant (Switzerland)
- TEKKA Implant (France)
- Camlog PROGRESSIVA Implant (Germany)
- Mis Implant (Israel)
Dental implant harms
Dental implant treatment is a highly reliable treatment option with a success rate ranging between 90% and 100%. However, some patients may encounter problems. Among these problems, the most common ones are the following.
- Soft tissue injuries
- Damage to neighboring teeth
- Bone injury
- Damage to the sinuses
Things to consider before dental implants
Since dental implants act as tooth roots, the jawbone tissue must be sufficient to fix the implant before application. If the jawbone does not have this competence, the jawbone tissue is strengthened with various orthodontic treatment methods.
On the other hand, attention should also be paid to gum health before the implant is applied. Because gum health significantly affects the success of implant treatment. In addition, gum health must be maintained during the time the implants remain in the mouth.
Finally, the general health status of the patients is also important in implant treatment. In order for implant treatment, which is a surgical procedure, to be successful, it is important that patients do not have chronic diseases or that they are under control.
How is a dental implant made?
Dental implant treatment is a multi-stage treatment. For this reason, it is completed in a longer time compared to other dental treatments. In addition, dental implant is a treatment method involving surgical intervention.
Dental implant stages
Dental implant treatment basically consists of five different stages. These stages can be briefly summarized as follows.
The first stage of dental implant treatment is examination. If the general health of the patients does not pose any problem for implant treatment, then a special X-ray is taken to plan the treatment. With this X-ray, the type and length of the implant to be applied to the patient is calculated. At this stage, the prosthesis to be placed on the implant is determined. For this reason, it is important to advance the treatment process with physicians who are experts in their field.
After the planning is done, the second stage is the surgical placement of the implants in the patients. Local anesthesia is applied to patients during these procedures. The duration of the procedure varies between 30 and 90 minutes depending on the duration of the implant. Different techniques are used for the placement of titanium implants. Which technique will be used is determined according to the needs of the patient.
After the implants are placed, a certain period of time is required for the implants to fuse with the jawbone. This period is 6 months for implants applied to the upper jaw and 3 months for implants applied to the lower jaw. Some patients may be fitted with temporary prostheses at this stage.
During the healing process, patients can continue their normal diet, provided that they do not put too much load on the implants. During this period, patients should not neglect their regular check-ups.
Placement of the abutment
Dental prostheses consist of two parts. The first part is the part that acts as the tooth root. The second part is the abutment, which creates a suitable space for the prosthesis to be applied. This cylindrical piece is inserted only after the bone and the implant have completely fused.
Implantation of prostheses
The final stage of dental implant treatment is the placement of dentures. To do this, first the mold of the superstructure and the mouth is taken. Then, in accordance with this mold, prostheses are produced with the type of coating preferred by the patients and applied to the patients.
Side effects in dental implant treatment
Since dental implant treatment is included in surgical procedures, it may cause some negativities. These include the following.
- Swelling of the gums
- Minor bleeding
- Swelling of the face
- Bruising of the skin or gums
- Pain in the implanted area
Nutrition after dental implants
After the surgical procedure in which the implant application is performed, there are some points that patients should pay attention to in their nutrition. This ensures that the healing phase is completed faster and more smoothly.
- Consuming foods at room temperature
- Food is soft
- Taking vitamin and mineral supplements if deemed necessary by the dentist
- Avoiding very hard or granular foods
- Avoiding foods such as fish, chicken, omelet and pasta for the first 2 weeks after implant application
Who is not eligible for dental implants?
Dental implant application is not recommended for people with certain health problems. These health problems include the following:
- Conditions that may prevent the patient from maintaining dental hygiene after implant treatment
- Some heart diseases
- Patients are not predisposed to surgical procedures (feeling excessive anxiety or fear)
- People with blood clotting problems
- The jaw bone structure is not suitable for implant application
- Rheumatic diseases
- Uncontrolled diabetes