Kidney Stone

Feb 08, 2022

Table of contents

30 Second Summary

  • Kidney stones are mineral deposits that form in the kidney ducts.
  • It can be seen at any age.
  • The most common symptoms are blood in the urine, nausea, vomiting and severe chest, abdominal and lower back pain.
  • The size and type of stone determines the treatment method.
  • Symptoms of passing a kidney stone include severe pain, nausea, vomiting, tightness, tension and cold sweat.

What is a kidney stone?

The kidneys, one of the most important organs of the excretory system, have many functions. Among these tasks, it is especially involved in the removal of wastes formed as a result of the body's metabolism. Because of this role, even the smallest problems that may occur in the kidneys have important consequences for the body. One of the most common problems in the kidneys is kidney stones.

Kidney stones are mineral deposits in the kidney ducts, usually due to unknown causes. Kidney stones are 3 times more likely to occur in men than in women. On the other hand, kidney stones are one of the diseases that can recur even if they are completely treated.

Kidney stones, which can be seen in people of all ages, are much more common in people in their 30s. On the other hand, timely treatment of kidney stones is very important. Otherwise, the stones block the kidney ducts and cause an increase in intra-renal pressure. In addition to causing severe pain, the increased pressure also causes dysfunction of the kidneys.

Kidney Stone Symptoms

The most common symptoms of kidney stones are as follows:

  • Blood in the urine,
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Severe chest, abdominal and lower back pain,

Kidney Stone Diagnosis Methods

Various tests and medical imaging are used to diagnose kidney stones. The test and imaging methods used are as follows:

  • Urine analysis,
  • Computed tomography,
  • X-ray,
  • Ureteroscopy,
  • Ultrasonography

Kidney Stone Treatment Methods

Factors such as the size and type of stone play an active role in determining the treatment methods for kidney stones. Some methods used in kidney stones are also used in gallstones.

Which method to choose is decided after a detailed examination by the urologist. However, after treatment, the patient needs to make some changes to prevent the recurrence of kidney stones. These changes can prevent the formation of new kidney stones. Among the changes, especially dietary patterns, avoiding foods that cause kidney stones and consuming plenty of water have an important place.

Medication Therapy

Drug treatment is one of the most preferred methods especially for small kidney stones. These aids can help dissolve kidney stones. In this way, small pieces of stones are excreted in the urine. However, it is very important for patients to consume plenty of water in drug treatment.

Surgical Treatment

In the treatment of larger stones, open surgeries are one of the preferred treatment methods. However, this method is generally not preferred due to the high probability of recurrence and the longer recovery time of the patients.

Summary of Surgery

Duration of Surgery: 30 minutes-2 hours

Anesthesia Method: General, Spinal

Hospitalization Duration: 1 day

Return to Work Period: 2-7 Days


ESWL, one of the innovative treatment methods used in the treatment of kidney stones that are too large to dissolve with drugs, is the breaking of kidney stones with shock waves.


In this surgical method, the kidney stone is intervened by entering through the urinary tract. Ureteroscopy is used to crush or remove stones.


In nephrolithotomy surgery, also known as closed kidney stone surgery, kidney stones are removed directly from the kidney.

How do kidney stones fall?

When kidney stones form in the kidney pool and then fall into the urinary tract, they are called ureteral stones. The most accurate method for the diagnosis of these stones falling into the urinary tract is computed tomography with medication. In addition, other examinations determine the characteristics of the ureteral stone and whether it will fall out on its own. In order to determine this, the necessary examinations must be carried out meticulously.

The transverse diameter of the stone must be less than 6 mm in order to use the medication method for self-discharge of a ureteral stone. In this case, with 15 days of medication, patients have a 65% to 70% chance of passing the stone.

However, if the stone sits in the urinary tract canal and causes edema there, as well as if its diameter is more than 7 mm, the possibility of spontaneous fall with medication is extremely reduced.

The medication used for the spontaneous passing of kidney stones includes painkillers, urinary lubricants and drugs that prevent or relax the spasm of the ureter. In addition, the heat applied to the ureter wall also helps the muscles to relax.

In some cases, patients experience very severe pain despite the medication given. These pains seriously reduce the quality of life of patients. In this case, patients should be intervened without waiting for the stones to fall out.

Symptoms of Falling Kidney Stone

Dropping a kidney stone is an experience in which patients experience severe pain. While these pains experienced by patients are initially felt in the part of the lumbar region close to the kidneys, in the following periods, the pain shifts downwards and starts to be felt in the anus. If the pain intensifies, it is realized that the stone is moving.

Other symptoms felt by patients who have passed a kidney stone include feeling overwhelmed, bored, tense and cold sweating. When patients drop the stones, all their troubles come to an end in an instant. However, it is normal for patients to have some blood in their urine after the abortion.

On the other hand, if the kidney stone returns to the kidney pool, the pain of the patients is alleviated and the dropping time can be prolonged up to 1 hour. As the stone moves, the pain felt by patients increases.

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