What is psychology?

Psychology is a branch of medicine primarily concerned with studying the mind and behaviors. It deals not only with behaviors performed consciously or unconsciously but also heavily focuses on thought processes and emotions. The term "psychology" represents a comprehensive scientific field, and specialists conducting various research in this field are known as psychologists. Although generally categorized under social sciences, psychology also embodies characteristics of natural sciences, often utilizing knowledge related to brain anatomy.

Psychology does not only involve the direct observation of human behaviors but also encompasses unobservable mental processes such as thinking, remembering, visualizing, and imagining. Furthermore, the field of psychology includes various areas such as:

  • Perception
  • Attention motivation
  • Intelligence
  • Personality
  • Interpersonal relationships
  • Intra-group and inter-group relations
  • Animal behaviors

Given the vast scope of psychology, it intersects with numerous other disciplines ranging from philosophy to natural sciences, and from anthropology to genetics. Additionally, psychology encompasses various sub-disciplines focused on different areas, including:

  • Clinical psychology
  • Social psychology
  • Developmental psychology
  • Educational psychology

What are psychological conditions?

Psychologists are highly effective in diagnosing and treating mental illnesses and play a crucial role in preventing these conditions. This enables clients to achieve the life standards they dream of.

They use a variety of diagnostic and treatment options to identify and correct various psychological illnesses and conditions. Treatment interventions make it possible to eliminate clients' anxieties, increase awareness, and help individuals recognize their strengths and weaknesses.

Psychologists facilitate individuals' mental well-being, especially by working on perceptual and reactive disorders, improving their clients' social interactions, and enhancing their quality of life.

In treating mental disorders in children, adolescents, and adults, psychologists play a key role in eliminating emotions and thoughts that are not considered normal. Since mental illnesses can occur at any age, psychologists provide services to clients of all ages.

The areas psychologists focus on include sleep disorders, substance and alcohol dependency, and eating disorders. Resolving these psychological issues also contributes to the clients' physical health.

What disorders do psychology experts deal with?

The areas of interest for psychology experts are issues that significantly impact clients' lives. The increasing difficulties in living conditions worldwide have heightened the need for psychological support. Furthermore, a significant portion of psychological illnesses tends to progress if left untreated. Therefore, consulting with psychology experts upon noticing symptoms can ensure more efficient and quicker treatment. Common psychological disorders include:


Depression leads the list of widespread psychological illnesses in society. It negatively affects both thoughts and emotions. On the other hand, depression is a treatable condition. It causes various emotional and physical issues and adversely affects patients' work performance.

If left untreated, depression, which often starts with symptoms like feeling sad and loss of energy, can lead to suicidal thoughts in patients. A diagnosis of depression can be made if the symptoms persist for at least two weeks.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

The need to repeatedly perform an action, coupled with unwanted thoughts and obsessions, is known as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), a type of anxiety disorder. The obsessive actions of patients can profoundly affect their entire lives, and the compulsion to repeat certain actions can also lead to unhappiness.

Even though many patients with OCD may know or suspect that their obsessions are not valid, they feel compelled to repeat these actions to alleviate their anxiety. Cognitive and behavioral therapies are effective in treating OCD. Acceptance of the condition by the patients and learning to live with it can lead to more successful treatments.

Social Phobia

Social phobia, an anxiety disorder, causes individuals to feel anxious in their daily interactions with other people. The high anxiety felt by patients is rooted in the fear of being demeaned or negatively received in social interactions.

Also known as social anxiety disorder and quite prevalent in society, social phobia significantly affects patients' social lives. It often emerges during childhood or adolescence and is commonly characterized by symptoms like tachycardia and sweating. It can be easily diagnosed with social phobia tests, and its treatment involves psychotherapy and various medications.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Traumatic events where individuals' lives are in serious danger or they experience significant fear are labeled as trauma. These include severe issues like epidemics, serious traffic accidents, the loss of a loved one, and natural disasters. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychological issue that arises following such serious incidents.

PTSD is more commonly seen in women. Symptoms of PTSD include the persistent feeling that the traumatic event will reoccur. Usually treated with psychotherapy, PTSD can also involve the use of medications in certain cases.

Panic Disorder

Panic disorder is characterized by sudden, unprovoked episodes of intense fear, anxiety, horror, and panic. The frequency of these episodes can increase over time, significantly affecting patients' daily lives.

Panic attacks usually last less than half an hour, but some patients may experience episodes lasting up to an hour. Panic disorder, which involves symptoms like palpitations, sweating, and fear of death, varies in intensity and duration among patients. Treatment for panic disorder includes medication and psychotherapy.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, causes patients to oscillate between extreme emotional states. As a result, patients may struggle with negative thoughts at times and feel extremely energetic and happy at other times.

For accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder, psychologists need to meticulously examine their patients. In severe cases of bipolar disorder, patients can switch from being hyperactive, cheerful, and happy to experiencing severe depression and suicidal thoughts. Treatment for bipolar disorder includes the use of antipsychotic and antidepressant medications.

Adult Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), typically seen during childhood, is a lifelong condition. Individuals with this disorder have problems focusing, continuing tasks, forgetfulness, and procrastination. The reason is their difficulty in keeping track of ongoing events in their minds. Failure due to Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder can also lead to frustration and anger, significantly affecting patients' daily lives. Its treatment may require a combination of various medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy approaches.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Another common issue in society is Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). It's characterized by persistent, excessive, and inappropriate levels of worry and anxiety. It tends to worsen especially during periods of stress and distress. GAD, which can begin during childhood or adolescence, is treatable, and its treatment involves medication and cognitive therapy.

Substance and Nicotine Addiction

Regular use of both natural and synthetic drugs, as well as nicotine, leads to addiction. When the addicted substances are not consumed, withdrawal symptoms appear, affecting individuals both physiologically and psychologically.

When should one seek help from a psychology department?

Challenges that affect behaviors, thoughts, and emotions in any area of individuals' lives can lead to psychological disorders. It is entirely normal for different psychological issues to arise after stressful times, such as the loss of a loved one, separation from a job, or difficulties in marriage. Additionally, not only in times of trouble but also for better self-understanding and emotional resolution, individuals may need the assistance of psychologists.