Venous Insufficiency

Jul 05, 2022

Table of contents

Venous insufficiency, which is one of the most common vascular diseases in the society, is a vein disease. The veins, which are responsible for collecting the dirty blood in the body, move in the direction of the heart.

What is Venous Insufficiency?

Venous insufficiency, which is the most common venous disease in the society, can be defined as back leakage of the veins. In people with venous insufficiency, blood in the veins flows in the opposite direction instead of in front of the heart. For this reason, the prominence of the veins is called varicose veins.

Venous insufficiency is generally a disease caused by valve problems or obstruction in the veins. Over time, this condition becomes chronic and causes venous insufficiency.

Causes of Venous Insufficiency

In the limbs of a healthy human body, the blood in the veins moves towards the heart. The venous valves in these veins prevent the blood from escaping backwards and allow it to reach the heart. Venous insufficiency occurs when this flow is blocked. Among the factors that cause venous insufficiency are the following.

  • Sedentary life,
  • Sitting or standing in a fixed position for a long time,
  • Being genetically predisposed,
  • Superficial thrombophlebitis
  • Superficial or deep vein occlusion,
  • Muscle weakness,
  • Leg injuries
  • A blow to the legs,
  • Cancer,
  • A condition in which blood clots in a blood vessel in the leg,
  • Being a woman,
  • Pregnancy,
  • To be tall,
  • Congenital venous valve insufficiency,
  • Smoking
  • Obesity,
  • Aging,
  • Presence of varicose veins,
  • The presence of a blood clot in the veins,

Symptoms of Venous Insufficiency

Venous insufficiency causes many symptoms. Among the most common symptoms in patients are the following.

  • Thickening of the leg skin,
  • Thickening of the skin of the feet,
  • Feeling of heaviness in the legs,
  • Sores or redness on the legs,
  • Swelling of the leg veins,
  • The veins of the legs appear blue or purple on the surface of the skin,
  • Wounds on the legs that do not heal for months,
  • Numbness in the legs,
  • Pain when the leg is raised or straight,
  • Formation of new varicose veins,
  • A feeling of fullness or restlessness in the legs,
  • Tightness in the calves,
  • Leg cramps,
  • Skin discoloration, especially around the ankles,
  • Leg ulcer,
  • Itchy legs
  • Edema in the legs
  • Leg pain,

How is Venous Insufficiency Diagnosed?

To diagnose venous insufficiency, physicians first perform a detailed physical examination. Imaging methods such as computed tomography, MR venography, MRI, intravenous ultrasound or color ultrasound are then used to determine where the disease originates.

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Venous Insufficiency Treatment

Factors taken into account when planning the treatment of venous insufficiency include the cause of the disease and the degree of damage to the blood vessels. Many methods are used in the treatment of venous insufficiency. These methods can be applied separately or in combination.

Compression Stockings

Compression stockings that help the treatment of venous insufficiency are one of the medical materials. Compression stockings are an equipment that applies pressure to the veins to accelerate the blood flow from the ankle to the calves. For ease of use, it is recommended to apply compression stockings with velcro, zipper or banded types during the treatment period.

Raising the Legs High

Resting the legs by elevating them helps to stabilize blood pressure and helps the veins to perform their functions more easily. For this reason, it is recommended that patients with venous insufficiency rest by lifting their legs high for half an hour 3 or 4 times a day.

Medication Therapy

Diuretic drugs are the leading drugs used in the treatment of venous insufficiency. These medicines help to remove the edema in patients’ legs. Aspirin is also recommended in case of leg ulcers and pentoxifylline in case of ulcers.


With this method, salty water or a chemical substance is injected into the vein with venous insufficiency to harden the vein. Thanks to this injection, the vein hardens and descends and cannot be seen through the skin.


Massaging the legs increases blood flow. In this way, the ponding in the vein with venous insufficiency is removed.

Surgical Intervention

Surgical treatment methods are recommended for patients with advanced venous insufficiency. There are different surgical options for the treatment of the disease.

Venous Ablation

It is a surgical treatment method applied to patients with excessive damage to the valves in the vessels or the vessel walls. In the natural functioning of the body, blood vessels that become dysfunctional are destroyed over time and replaced by new vessels. In the venous ablation method, the vein with venous insufficiency is closed and the body is enabled to create a new vein. In today’s medicine, these surgeries are performed closed.

Vascular Removal

Another method of treating venous insufficiency is to remove the diseased vein from the body.


The process of removing blood from the damaged vessel and redirecting it to a healthy vessel is called bypass. In this procedure, artificial veins can be used or veins taken from another part of the body can be used.

Angioplasty and Stenting

Stents and angioplasty methods are used to open the narrowing of the vessels. In this method, angioplasty is first performed to dilate the vessel. In this method, the vein is dilated with a small balloon. A stent is then inserted to maintain the shape of the vessel.

How Should Venous Insufficiency Patients Eat?

It is important for patients with venous insufficiency to be at their ideal weight. Because obesity is one of the biggest factors that cause the picture to worsen. In addition, the foods that patients should add and remove from their diet include the following.

  • Foods containing high amounts of rutin should be added to patients’ diets. These include green tea, asparagus, figs, onions, citrus fruits, apple peel, cherries, grapes and buckwheat.
  • Blueberries,
  • Watercress,
  • Beetroot,
  • Rosemary,
  • Ginger,
  • Green leafy vegetables,

Among the foods that patients with venous insufficiency should exclude from their diet are the following.

  • Refined carbohydrates,
  • Foods with added sugar,
  • Alcohol,
  • Canned foods,
  • Salty foods
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