Internal Medicine

What is internal medicine?

The internal medicine department, also called internal medicine, deals with patients over the age of 15. In addition to diagnosing and treating diseases of the internal organs, it also informs patients about how to protect themselves against diseases.

In addition to dealing with all diseases related to the internal organs, it is the umbrella unit of many other medical fields. For this reason, after diagnosing the first patients who apply, they can refer them to sub-branches. In cases where the treatment of the disease is to be realized by surgical methods, they refer patients to surgeons.

What are internal medicine (internal disease) conditions?

The field of internal medicine, which is responsible for the objective evaluation of patients, preparation of the correct treatment plan, implementation of treatment and follow-up of patients, is the unit with the widest range of diseases among medical units. For this reason, a significant proportion of patients consult internal medicine specialists.

Among the health problems that internal medicine specialists are most frequently interested in are the following.

  • Blood Pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Kidney diseases
  • Liver diseases
  • Digestive system diseases
  • Blood disorders
  • Diseases due to vitamin and mineral deficiency
  • Infectious diseases
  • Anemia
  • Respiratory system diseases
  • Hormone disorders
  • Geriatrics

What are the diseases that internal medicine doctors deal with?

As mentioned earlier, the health problems that the internal medicine department deals with have an extremely wide range. For this reason, it is not possible to list all the diseases diagnosed and treated by the internal medicine department. In addition, the fact that a significant part of the developments in the field of medicine and the new diseases discovered belong to the internal medicine department causes the range of diseases to develop further. Among the main diseases diagnosed and treated in the internal medicine department are the following.

Infectious diseases

Infections are caused by parasites, bacteria, fungi or viruses. They are commonly referred to as pathogens. Infections are contagious and can occur in any tissue of the body. Some infectious diseases are common and have a low mortality rate, such as influenza and the common cold, while others are rare infections.

Thyroid gland diseases

The thyroid gland is a hormonal gland responsible for regulating many functions in the body. Therefore, over- or under-secretion of thyroid hormone can lead to serious diseases. The thyroid gland, which is extremely important for maintaining general health, also causes problems such as lack of energy and weight gain or loss.


Although cholesterol is considered a disease, it is fundamentally important for body functions. Cholesterol is a fat-like substance used in the assembly of intracellular structures and hormones.

The functions of cholesterol in the body include strengthening nerve tissues, protecting the subcutaneous tissue against microbes and maintaining water balance. However, cholesterol is divided into two. High cholesterol levels, called bad cholesterol, cause vascular occlusion and thus cardiovascular diseases.


Blood pressure, one of the most common diseases in the society, is a disease caused by high or low blood pressure. Hypertension is the most common hypertension in the society and it is a health problem that can cause significant health problems. The internal medicine department not only treats hypertension patients but also monitors them.


Diabetes, also called diabetes, is a disease in which the amount of sugar in the blood is above normal values. Diabetes is usually caused by improper diet and sedentary lifestyles. In addition, some problems in the pancreas also cause diabetes. A significant portion of diabetic patients can control their blood sugar levels by making the necessary adjustments in their living arrangements. For this reason, it is extremely important for internal medicine specialists to guide their patients correctly.

Lung diseases

Diseases that affect the respiratory system also cause functional impairment of the lungs. This dysfunction leads to complaints such as cough, phlegm, snoring, back pain and weight loss. A significant number of these diseases can be treated by internal medicine specialists. However, in case of serious lung problems, internal medicine specialists refer patients to pulmonologists.

Digestive system diseases

The digestive system is a complex system with many internal organs. It is a system supported by many internal organs, especially the stomach, liver and intestines. For this reason, there are many different diseases that affect the digestive system. It is possible to list the most common of these diseases as follows.

  • Hepatitis
  • Cirrhosis
  • Cyst
  • Fatty liver disease
  • Reflux
  • Gastritis
  • Ulcer
  • Stomach hernia
  • Gallbladder stones and sand
  • Gallbladder obstructions
  • Gallbladder inflammation
  • Digestive system infections
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea

Kidney diseases

Kidney diseases are always seen as health problems that should be taken seriously because they can be permanent. Among the common diseases of the kidneys are the following.

  • Kidney infections
  • Kidney stones
  • Cyst formations
  • Acute failure
  • Chronic failure

Blood disorders

Anemia is the most common disease among blood diseases. Anemia, which is characterized by low hemoglobin and iron values, is divided into various headings. The most common cause of anemia is inadequate or irregular nutrition. In addition to anemia, clotting disorders, bone marrow diseases and bleeding are also included in blood diseases.

Rheumatic diseases

Rheumatic diseases are divided into many subtypes. Rheumatic diseases affecting joints, bones and soft tissue are a group of diseases characterized by non-pathogenic infection and pain. The most common rheumatic diseases include the following.

  • Fibromyalgia
  • Calcification
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Gout
  • Behcet's disease
  • Familial Mediterranean fever
  • Acute joint rheumatism
  • Ankylosing spondylitis

Musculoskeletal diseases

Although the orthopedics department usually deals with musculoskeletal diseases, the internal medicine department is authorized to follow up patients after rheumatic diseases, pain in the musculoskeletal system and surgical procedures in this system. In addition, internal medicine specialists are also responsible for the treatment of osteoporosis, especially in advanced age.

In which cases should you consult the internal medicine department?

Internal medicine is the most comprehensive part of the medical field. For this reason, in many complaints, patients prefer to see internal medicine specialists first. In addition, it is also possible for internal medicine specialists to refer incoming patients to sub-areas if deemed necessary. For this reason, it is the first medical unit recommended to be consulted in case of complaints with unpredictable causes.

In addition, internal medicine specialists can make the necessary recommendations for people to spend their lives in a healthier way. People who aim to maintain their general health status before getting sick can also apply to internal medicine specialists to ensure that they spend their lives in a healthier way.

Finally, the internal medicine department is a medical field that determines the general health status of people. Thanks to routine controls, it is possible to diagnose diseases that are seen in people and that do not show symptoms at an early stage.